1. Linux


# Check debian version
lsb_release -a

# Update the system
apt-get update && apt-get upgrade

Cleaning up deinstalled packages

See the list of all the currently installed and deinstalled

dpkg --get-selections

See how many packages are in the ‘deinstalled’ state with this command:

dpkg --get-selections | grep deinstall | wc -l

To purge all of these packages at once:

dpkg --get-selections | grep deinstall | sed 's/deinstall/\lpurge/' | dpkg --set-selections; dpkg -Pa

Boot debian in text mode instead of graphical mode (GUI)

To disable the login manager from automatically running at boot up, run the following command as root

update-rc.d -f gdm remove

To start X manually, you would then have to login at the command prompt and enter the command


To reset your login manager so that it runs at boot up, do

update-rc.d -f gdm defaults