1. Linux

### Check debian version

lsb_release -a

Update the system

Debian operating system is pre-installed. To update and upgrade it

# update the list of available packages and their versions, it does not install or upgrade any packages.
$ apt-get update
# install newer versions of the installed packages
$ apt-get upgrade

or combine both

apt-get update && apt-get upgrade

Changing Locale

$ nano /etc/locale.gen

Uncomment tr_TR.UTF-8 UTF-8, and run below to activate locale

$ locale-gen

Changing Time Zone

$ dpkg-reconfigure tzdata

Cleaning up deinstalled packages

See the list of all the currently installed and deinstalled

dpkg --get-selections

See how many packages are in the ‘deinstalled’ state with this command:

dpkg --get-selections | grep deinstall | wc -l

To purge all of these packages at once:

dpkg --get-selections | grep deinstall | sed 's/deinstall/\lpurge/' | dpkg --set-selections; dpkg -Pa

Boot debian in text mode instead of graphical mode (GUI)

To disable the login manager from automatically running at boot up, run the following command as root

update-rc.d -f gdm remove

To start X manually, you would then have to login at the command prompt and enter the command


To reset your login manager so that it runs at boot up, do

update-rc.d -f gdm defaults